Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan who is popularly known as Mirza Ghalib was born on 27th December 1797 , in Darya Ganj, Akbarabad, Agra , India. He was an Indian poet who used to write his work in Urdu and Persian . He was the last poet of the Mughal era . He was a poet who has seen the end of the Mughal empire and the beginning of British era . Ghalib is known as the most famous and influential poets of Urdu and Persian language , and is known for his work not only in India but all over the world .
His grand father , Mirza Qoqan Baig Khan migrated to India from Samarkand during the empire of Ahmad shah (from 1748 to 1754). He worked in different cities of India like Lahore , Delhi , and Jaipur after which he settled in Agra , Uttar Pradesh . His father , Mirza Abdullah Baig Khan who was married to Izzat-ut-Nisa worked for the nawab of Lucknow and then Nizam of Hyderabad , Deccan . Ghalib was five years old when his father died in a battle in Alwar and then Ghalib was raised by his uncle Mirza Nasrullah Baig Khan .
Ghalib was thirteen years old when he got married to Umrao Begum ,daughter of Nawab Ilahi Bakhsh . After his marriage he moved to Delhi with his wife and younger brother who later died at a young age during the chaos of 1857 . Mirza had seven children but none of them survived beyond infancy . This pain of not being a father is seen in some of his poetry also . The reports regarding he and his wife are still conflicting . She was a conservative and god gearing women and was considered piteous. The idea that life is a painful struggle that continues till the end of life ; is one of the main themes of his poetry .
Ghalib started his career in poetry at a very young age of eleven. He started his poems with Urdu language but he also spoke Persian and Turkish at home . When Ghalib was in his teens he learned Persian ,Arabic , philosophy and logic from a tourist from Iran who happened to stay at his home for two years . Today he is known for his Urdu Ghazals , despite of the fact that he was far prouder of his achievements in Persian poetry . Before the era of Ghalib, Ghazals were just used as an expression of love but Ghalib expanded the scope of ghazals by writing them as mysteries of life ,philosophy and many other subjects .
Mirza Ghalib was given the title “Dabir-ul-Mulk” and “Najm-ud-daula” by the emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar 2 . He was one of the most important courtier of the royal court of the emperor . Mirza Ghalib was also appointed as a poetry teacher of the emperor in 1854 and later for his son Prince Fakhr-ud-Din Mirza.
Ghalib died on 15th February 1869 at the age of 71 in Gali Qasim Jaan , Ballimaran ,Chandni chowk , Delhi . He was buried In Hazrat Nizamuddin ,that is near the tomb of Nizamuddin Auliya .
Today people all over the world come to visit his tomb and his house in Chandni chowk is now a museum and known as “Ghalib ki Haveli”. Many plays are regularly performed on the life of Ghalib in school , colleges and theatres in India and Pakistan as well. A television drama series known as Mirza Ghalib released in 1988 on Doordarshan national is one of the most famous movies in today’s world that tells us about the whole life story of Ghalib and his achievements.