Epistaxis is a condition that results in uncertain nose bleeding from either of the nostrils. This clinical condition is usually classified as anterior epistaxis and posterior epistaxis based on the site where the bleeding originates. Epistaxis is rarely life threatening unless it is associated with chronic disorders such as cancer. About 10% of nosebleeds is life threatening, and it is accounted that four of the 2.4 million deaths occur due to epistaxis. This condition commonly occurs in younger children (2-10 years) and older people (50-80 years); however, it is more common among individuals who are above 50 years of age. Prevalence is higher in males (58%) as compared to females (42%). It is usually caused by local trauma, including nasal infection and even nose picking. Environmental factors causing epistaxis include dry climate, lack of humidity in the atmosphere, or prolong inhalation of dry air. People who are on medications such as warfarin, clopidogrel, aspirin, or any other anticoagulant medications are more susceptible to epistaxis. Other predisposing factors such as infection, allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, cocaine snorting, hypertension, alcohol abuse, and inherited bleeding problems also lead to epistaxis.
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In terms of treatment, the global epistaxis market is segmented as topical vasoconstrictors, antibiotic ointments (mupirocin), anesthetics, and nasal cautery. The topical vasoconstrictors segment includes oxymetazoline, co-phenylcaine, or adrenaline, which are applied directly to the mucous membrane. The anesthetics segment includes lidocaine or lignocaine and is often given in combination with vasoconstrictors. Nasal cautery is the most common treatment of epistaxis. Chemical cautery (silver nitrate) and electrocautery (an electrically charged wire such as platinum) are two types of nasal cautery. Chemical cautery is the most popular method for the treatment of idiopathic recurrent epistaxis. Most of the research is focused on device development, thus boosting the growth of the epistaxis market. In 2016, Smith & Nephew launched a range of epistaxis management devices using ‘rapid rhino technology’ that has a blend of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), which exhibit self-lubricating properties that provide gentle and even compression to the nasal area and helps in the quicker re-conformation of the nasal anatomy. Additionally, growing incidence rates of epistaxis and chronic diseases boost the growth of the global epistaxis market. The lifelong incidence rate of epistaxis among the general population is about 60%, of which only 10% seeks medical treatment. This factor is projected to restrain the growth of the market during the forecast period.
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