Macular edema is a condition when there is accumulation of proteins and liquid on or under the macula of the eye. Macula is the part of the eye that is responsible for focusing on the details of everything. It is because of this part, that we are actually able to see or read or do things that require a lot of precision. For example, reading someone’s very tiny writing, threading a needle, reading sign boards on roads from a distance etc. Macula is situated at the centre of the retina and holds closely coupled cones that are responsible for this stark and clear central vision. So, because of the leakage of fluid in blood vessels of retina, this macula swells up and then this condition is called as macular edema.
Symptoms of Macular edema:
Though the initial symptoms for macular edema are weak and painless but as edema increases, blurred or wavy vision begins to show up. This should be attended well in time as if left untreated, macular edema could result in total vision loss.
Diabetes is one major cause of macular edema. Chronic or type2 diabetes usually affect blood vessels that include blood vessels of retina too, which may further result in leakage of liquid and hence resulting in swelled up macula. A few congenital diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and retinoschisis are also responsible. Conditions like atherosclerosis, high blood pressure may also sometimes result in macular edema, as they create blockages in veins. AMD (Age-related Macular Degeneration) is yet another major cause that leads to edema. Other factors include side-effects of some medicines, lens transplant as cataract cure, chronic or intermediate uveitits.
A regular and strict check on blood sugar levels, in order to control diabetes could help prevent macular edema occurring due to diabetes. Close monitoring of blood pressure should also be a part regular lipid profile and sugar-level checkup. Along with all this, exercise and healthy diet are well in tuned with macular edema treatment.
Diagnosis and treatment:
For diagnosis and macular edema treatment, there are various tests that give the insight of retinal damage due to edema. A detailed examination by an ophthalmologist and visual acuity test is conducted primarily. Tests such as dilated eye exam, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiogram and the Amsler grid test are often conducted to ensure exact retinal position and its current condition.
Macular edema treatment in India is also carried out on similar lines. To reduce the swelling in retinal blood vessels, it is necessary to stop further leakage of fluid. For this good blood circulation in blood vessels and oxygenation of macula is important. Anti-inflammatory medicines are also used to reduce swelling. Clinics such as Sanjeevan in Mumbai follow the same method to treat the disease. Apart from all the treatment, medication and cure nutrition rich diet and a healthy lifestyle, as a prevention measurement is always recommended.