Cytokines are small secreted proteins released by cells that have a specific effect on the interactions and communications cells. Cytokines may act on the cells from which they are secreted (autocrine action), on nearby cells, and in some instances, on the distant cells (endocrine actions).
Cytokines are produced by a broad range of cells, including cells of the immune system of the human body, with respect to complex immune response. Cytokines help in intercellular communication in immune response, as they are cell signaling molecules, and thus, they trigger the movement of cells on inflamed infection sites. Cytokines can be briefly categorized as peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. These, along with their receptors, are used in different treatment therapies, inflammatory conditions, immune disorders, infectious diseases, and oncology to boost immune response.
Other names of cytokines?
• Many cytokines are referred to as “interleukins”, which indicate that they are secreted by some leukocytes and act on other leukocytes
• Some are called “interferon” and “tumor necrosis factor”
• They are also known as growth factors
• Cytokines are also alternatively known as Chemokines. Chemokines play an important role in inflammation.
• A group of cytokines is referred to as-as colony-stimulating factors (CSF), which are required for the growth and differentiation of blood cells from hematopoietic stem cells.
Though cytokines help the immune system in various ways, they also have various adverse effects as they are linked to many disease conditions, namely schizophrenia, major depression, Alzheimer’s, and cancer, among others. Over-secretion of cytokines can trigger a syndrome known as a cytokine storm. Due to increasing cytokines levels, deaths were weighted more heavily toward people with the healthy immune system.
A report by Mordor Intelligence, a market research firm estimates double-digit growth rate for Global cytokine market.
The growing interest in harnessing the immune system to eradicate cancer over the past two decades has been accompanied by heightened efforts to characterize cytokines and exploit their vast signaling networks to develop cancer treatments. They directly stimulate immune effector cells and stromal cells at the tumor site, and enhance tumor cell recognition by cytotoxic effector cells. Numerous animal tumor model studies have demonstrated that cytokines have a broad range of anti-tumor activities, and this has been translated into a number of cytokine-based approaches for cancer therapy.
Drivers for Cytokine Market:
The contribution of cytokines in stem–cell therapy and increasing acceptance of cytokines as a potential biomarker for neonatal sepsis are some of the factors driving the cytokine market.
Hurdles for Cytokine Market are:
Cytokines have the inherently short half-life, which necessitates prolonged administration of cytokine therapies. This is a major problem in maintaining an effective dose over a long period. This becomes an even greater issue when cytokine is administered systematically.
Efficiency of cytokine therapies in treating cancer, asthma, and arthritis will likely drive cytokine market in the future.