Due to the evolution of techniques and communication devices within the past decade, anyone will simply surf around the web using a computer, mobile phone, tablet, television, game console, etc. all these devices have the power to access to the internet, and have their own screen dimensions and use completely different resolutions. thence web designers ought to make sure that the content of their web site is legible and functional one of these resolutions.
That was a motivation for the development of Responsive web design (RWD). The term RWD was 1st mentioned by Ethan Marcotte in his report revealed in could 2010 on the portal “A list apart“. in that (Responsive net style, 2013) he delineates theories and the applications of RWD. One year later, the term RWD was ranged on the second position on prime web design Trends within the British e-magazine .net.
The year 2013 was proclaimed in Mashable inc., the British-American news web site, technology, and social media, as a year of RWD, (Mashable, 2013). thence the thought of the authors of this paper to analyze the extent to that RWD is enforced in apply. For that purpose, we checked 470 websites in four completely different countries: Serbia, Canada, UK, and the USA.
RESPONSIVE WEB DESIGN
The main plan of the essential principles of RWD and wealthy net Applications (RIA) is web for All and web on Everything, see (Karolić, 2013.). The essence of this concept is to alter access to the online content for all existing media. As already explicit within the Introduction, nowadays, there are various varieties of devices for accessing the web that have completely different screen dimensions. however, users have similar wants once surfing around the web, irrespective of the device they’re mistreatment. For, example, obtaining info from websites created for projection screen computers, accessing the online by mobile phone can be quite uncomfortable. thence the necessity for adapting the layout of the web content for various screen dimensions and resolutions. On the opposite hand, making completely different sites for varied devices is an exertion for web designers, and should even be avoided. along with the development of the media trade (mobile phones, iPods, screens), techniques for adapting a web page for various media are developing too. during this context, RWD seems to be a decent answer.
In the last four years, there’s a rise for quite forty-five of the utilization of mobile phones for accessing the online. The calculable range of individuals accessing the web per mobile phone is about one.1 billion (Musti, Kashyap, 2013.). consistent with a prediction of the Ericsson company, (Vanguardngr, 2014), the number of mobile phone users can reach nine billion in 2018. it’s expected that good phones keep the leader position among different mobile devices
It is not versatile and not profitable to conduct surveys regarding what devices users use for accessing your website and adapting the web site consistent with the results. the correct answer for various user devices is making a versatile, good and adaptative web site. in order to do, therefore, one needs to take into consideration completely different screen dimensions and resolutions and to adapt the content layout consequently. this is a comparatively new idea and needs a well-organized HTML structure, as such a structure will be versatile to completely different devices. Therefore, it’s judicious to listen to (Developing responsive, 2013; pictures Guide, 2013):
- The number of columns of the web page ought to be adaptative to the screen/window• dimensions
- The menus and therefore the content must be displayed consistent with the interest of the users’
- Pictures and videos ought to dynamically be resized in order to suit the screen dimension
- Menus, links, and buttons must be larger on bit screen devices, therefore it might alter a user-friendly environment
- The area between interactive links needs to be sufficiently high in order to avoid occasional prolong small devices like good phones or tablets
- The font size and line spacing ought to be determined to alter the simple reading. the number of columns ought to even be carefully chosen in this manner.
- Using CSS3 rules for visual effects rather than pictures
RWD may be a client-server technology. it’s mainly realized through Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). the most plan of RWD is that adopting the content layout is complete with minimum server requests. RWD works the most effective once the content renders consistent with the device.
Generally, the content shouldn’t be reduced therefore extraordinarily, that it becomes hardly legible. It rather ought to be tailored to the screen dimensions. In different words, it ought to intelligently re-shape itself for optimum usability and impact.
Creating a responsive web site needs employing a proportion-based grid, versatile pictures, and CSS3 media queries. The proportion-based grid is usually known as „Fluid grid“. Its basic plan is that the size of all components ought to run in relative units, i.e. in percents (%), whereas fastened units like pixels ought to be avoided. One ought to conjointly provide versatile dimensions for pictures that are proportional to numerous screen resolutions. CSS media queries enable the US to make completely different designs for varied screen dimensions and devices. thereon means, the online page is displayed using the design that is best tailored to the user’s screen dimensions.
Besides all on top of mentioned blessings, there are some limitations of RWD. 1st of all, there’s no universal screen resolution, which inserts all devices. In different words, the therefore known as „one-size-fits-all” resolution doesn’t exist. Usually, it’s not possible to stretch the online content from the littlest good phone to the resolution of the most important smart TV. the images can be of low resolution and therefore the text can be of low readability. Therefore, it’s vital to optimize content to the requirements of the business.
Besides RWD, there are some rules which might facilitate adapting the content layout while not ever-changing the elements: once deciding the optimum content dimension simply add margins to suit the remainder of the screen. this is often what we called semi-responsive sites.
One of the constraints of RWD is that some older net browsers don’t support CSS3 media queries. In Table one the browser support of some CSS3 rules concerning properties remodels and transition are bestowed.
A solution for a few of those limitations are prefixes for the CSS3 properties that build those options operating well in varied browsers. As shown within Table one, for instance, the browser Mozzila is mistreatment prefix -webkit-. Overall, in spite of all limitations, the advantage of mistreatment RWD is critical.
STATISTICS AND TOOLS FOR RWD
According to (Browser support, 2013), the foremost unremarkably used screen resolutions are 1366x768px (mostly for laptops) – twenty five and 1900x1200px (desktop computers) – over thirtieth, mobile phones with resolution 800x480px – zero.5%. looking out the online by mistreatment mobile devices is continually increasing since 2011. the quantity of computers around the world reaches a pair of billion, whereas the quantity of itinerant house owners is up to five billion. the necessity for making a responsive web page which might simply be accessed by mistreatment varied devices is clear.
The task of this paper is
- To look at the presence of responsive web design in Serbia, Canada, UK and USA
- To comment on usability, illustration, and legitimacy of using RWD among sites.
Methods employed in the survey for grouping knowledge were: descriptive and comparative ways. during this survey, we used 2 criteria for assessing the implementation of RWD:
- The behavior of the online content throughout reading port reducing
- The content layout on varied screens and devices mistreatment the said tool
In our survey, we are going to classify the determined websites in 3 categories:
- Fluid responsive websites,
- Semi-responsive websites,
- Not responsive websites.
websites contain a grid of bound dimensions, and their content is adaptative up to a hard and fast screen dimension, however, the content isn’t any additional adaptative on lower screen dimensions. The grid is especially targeted horizontally and has such dimensions to suit a good vary of screen dimensions. In several cases it’s the grid of 960px or 980px dimension. we tend to decision websites semi-responsive:
- If the dimension of the most content divider is smaller than the bulk of
screen widths and therefore the remainder of the page fits as a background.
- If they need some components that are adaptative to all or any screens, like menus or link buttons,
- If the horizontal navigation bar is going in a replacement line while not ever- changing the font size
websites have components with fastened dimensions and don’t modification consistent with the various devices and screen resolutions.
In our survey, we checked the utilization of RWD of internet sites of varied classes like real estates, hotels, bookstores, bike stores, music instruments, doctors, dentists, restaurants, foreign language faculties, flower retailers, home appliances, etc. we tested 470 websites in total from four completely different countries: Serbia, Canada, USA, and the UK.
In our survey, we checked 117 websites of the on top of the listed classes from Serbia and obtained the following results: RWD is found on only seventeenth websites. the bulk of websites are semi-responsive (56%), and twenty-seven of the checked websites don’t seem to be responsive. From the obtained results we are able to conclude that RWD isn’t gifted normally in Serbia. However, the bulk of the checked websites is semi-responsive, therefore we are able to conclude that there exists a plan regarding the necessity of the utilization of RWD which there’s in all probability a scarcity of data the way to produce fluid responsive websites since RWD is a comparatively new technique.
In Canada, there are regarding sixtieth semi-responsive websites and twelve-tone system not responsive ones. the share of fluid responsive websites is twenty-eight.
Taking into consideration the results of our analyses, RWD and new net technologies are taking huge steps to the long run, since the necessity of adapting websites to numerous devices is growing incessantly. the bulk of websites created before 2012 are optimized for resolutions of 1024×768 and 1280×1024, with a body dimension of 800px to 960px.
Social network link buttons and email forms are largely fluid responsive. Also, the foremost common social networks are fluid responsive. this might be one among the explanations for his or her huge quality. Fluid websites are somewhat underneath portrayed these days, however, they’re undoubtedly the long run of web design. In fact, making a responsive website may be an advanced method, and prices actually quite a typical web site. one among the issues in implementing RWD is additionally the lack of knowledge during this space. In different words, this technology is slowly being introduced into the course of study of IT faculties. within the Higher school of skilled studies, there are many IT study programs (Web design, info Technology, Electronic Business, and Multimedia) together with web design courses. the primary 2 authors of this paper are teaching a subject known as net Languages and Tools that covers topics RWD techniques.
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