Any class of electrical machines, which directly convert electrical power into mechanical power, is referred to as a motor, one style being DC Motors (German: DC-Motoren). Moreover, those that rely on the energy generated through magnetic fields are the most common types. Almost all types of these motors have some internal mechanism, which operates either in the form of electromechanical or electronic. These can periodically alter the direction flow of current in some parts of the motor. Most types of engines usually produce rotary motion. A linear motor delivers force directly while moving in a straight line.
DC Motors (DC-Motoren)were the first and widely used types. Reason being, they could be powered directly from the existing current lighting power distribution systems. Their speed could also be controlled by using either a variable supply voltage or altering the strength of the current in its field windings. Small DC motors can be used in tools, toys, and appliances. However, for portable power tools and devices, the universal engine, which is also lightweight and capable of operating on direct current, is used. For propulsion of electric vehicles, drives for steel rolling mills, hoists, and elevators, larger DC motors are the preferred choices.
Nonetheless, the discovery of power electronics has made it possible to replace DC motors with AC motors in many ways. Today in the industrial world, direct current (DC) motors can be found everywhere. Robotics, automobiles, small and medium-sized motoring applications, usually feature DC motors due to their wide range of functions, in the industrial segment. There are many types of DC motors suited for different tasks.
Main Types of DC Motors
Being conversant with the workings of the different types of DC motors, helps us understand best they are suited for various applications and the one that best rhymes with your task.
There Are Four Main Types Of DC Motors. They Are
- Permanent Magnet DC Motors
These types of engines use a permanent magnet to create field flux. Thereby, providing great starting momentum, with excellent speed regulation, but speed is usually limited, hence, are typically found on low horsepower applications.
- Series DC Motors
In a series type of DC-Motoren, the field is generally wound using a few turns of large wire, bearing the full armature current. In a typical way, these kinds of engines are capable of creating massive amounts of starting momentum, but cannot regulate speed and can even be damaged by running with no load at all. Nonetheless, these limitations are reliable indicators that, they are not a good substitute for variable speed drive applications.
- Shunt Wound DC Motors
In these types of motors, the field is generally connected in parallel using the armature windings. These motors operate by regulating speed. This is since the shunt field can be fitted separately from the armature windings, capable of giving out simplified reversing controls.
- Compound DC Motors
They are similar to shunt woundDC motors and have a separately fitted shunt field. They also have good starting momentum but are prone to control problems in terms of variable speed drive applications. As we have seen, each type of DC motor has its strengths and weaknesses. Understanding them can assist you in knowing the one that best suits your application.